Science

“The desire that guides me in all I do is the desire to harness the forces of nature to the service of mankind.”
Nikola Tesla, "Radio Power Will Revolutionize the World" (July 1934)

We strive to be leaders and innovators instead of followers, to break new ground instead of mimicking what has already been done. That is why we rely on solid science to test and develop new ideas, to create new products that are not just different but better. Tools such as physics modeling, thermal analysis, airflow calculation, and lots of real-world testing help us achieve these goals.

Of course there is nothing less scientific than stating "it's like this because we say so" as if authority alone is enough. By publishing some of our research and analysis, we intend to both prove our claims and help educate the community about not just what works, but why. An educated community is less susceptible to being taken advantage of by frauds and cheap knock-offs, and is capable of creating great things. Together we can make our wildest dreams for the future become the reality of today!

Information about some of the materials used in our nails, including chemical composition, thermal properties, and other bits of history or interesting trivia. This section is pretty skeletal at the moment, but more will be coming.

The temperature displayed on digital units is the temperature of the heating coil. The temperature of the dish will always be lower than the heater readout, though exactly how much depends on the material and design of the nail. We have thermally tested all of the nails that we offer, and have created our Heater/Dish Temperature Calculator and these charts to help you find your optimal temperature preference for a given nail. Ideal temperature will vary based on the chemical composition of the essential oil you are vaporizing, amount of material being vaporized, and of course your personal tastes. This information is intended to give you a starting point for experimentation.

In general, the Heater/Dish Temperature Calculator will be the fastest and easiest way to get a starting temperature for your experimentation. Use the second calculator ("I KNOW WHAT DISH TEMPERATURE I WOULD LIKE. WHAT HEATER TEMPERATURE WILL GET ME THERE?") with a value of 600°F for the dish. This will give you a starting range, from which you can experiment and adjust for your personal technique and taste. As a general rule, use lower temperatures when vaporizing smaller amounts at once, for a slower vaporization, or to maximize/preserve flavor. Raise the temperature when vaporizing larger quantities of material, for a faster or more even vaporization (for example, when your material keeps going for too long and cannot be easily cleared or starts pooling in the dish.)

The static temperature charts are still available primarily for people who can better understand the relationship between heater and dish temperature when presented visually, or to compare overall performance of different nails. When the red and blue lines are closer together, temperatures are more even across the dish. When they are farther apart, there is more variation, meaning your technique for applying material to the dish is a greater factor in how consistent your results will be. The red line will always reflect parts of the dish closer to the heater coil and the blue farther away. For example, with the SiC HALO™, where the heater goes under the dish, the red line will be on the base of the dish and the blue line will be on the walls of the dish, farther away. To contrast, with the V1.3 Titanium Nail, where the heater goes around the outside walls of the dish, the red line reflects the wall temperature and the blue line reflects the base temperature.

For typical use, we suggest using a dish temperature at or below 600°F, so our temperature charts are marked with a horizontal line at that mark. This traces over to the line representing the coolest point on the dish, if you follow this line down, it shows the heater temperature to set on your unit. For example, with the SiC HALO™, a heater temperature of 695°F will make the coolest part of the dish about 600°F. Depending on your concentrate and preferences, after trying this temperature you may wish to adjust it up or down. For maximum flavor, we suggest using the lowest heater temperature that still provides full vaporization in a reasonable time. Running your unit hotter will vaporize faster, however you will experience a smaller flavor profile due to the destruction of sensitive volatile components. If you have a preferred heater temperature and curious about the actual dish temperature, the chart can be used in reverse by tracing a line up from the heater temperature at the bottom until you reach the red or blue lines, then trace a line left to find the dish temperature. You can also use the first calculator ("I KNOW WHAT HEATER TEMPERATURE I LIKE. WHAT IS THE ACTUAL DISH TEMPERATURE?") on our Heater/Dish Temperature Calculator page to find the range of dish temperatures for your heater temperature.

Methodology and all charts

NOTE: SCS = Santa Cruz Shredder, HE = Highly Educated, DDB = Deep Dish Banger


Static Temperature Charts
When using a digital or analog vaporizer at a constant, steady temperature
Quartz HALO™
SiC HALO™
V1.3
V1
V2
V1.2 (discontinued)
Pukinbeagle 16mm
Pukinbeagle 20mm
DarkCrystal Solid Core DDB
SCS Omni
HE 16mm
HE InfiniTi


Temperature Retention Charts
For Torch Use

These charts show dish temperature over time after applying torch heat to a nail. They allow you to find at what time your nail will be at the ideal use temperature after torching. For example, if you are using The SiC HALO™ and want a dish temperature of 600°F, start by torching for 70 seconds to match the starting temperature, then wait for 80 seconds to apply your material. There is a horizontal line at 500°F because that is the point where the dish is no longer hot enough to properly vaporize your material. Using The SiC HALO™ as an example again, 120 seconds after torching the nail is too cool.

The following images are airflow analysis of our nail designs. The lines represent the moving air with the blue portions indicating slower and red faster speed.


V2 nail (with carb cap)

The V2 nail uses an offset air intake to create a larger area to apply your essential oil. The chamber below the nail dish is shaped to create a vortex, increasing suction at the air intake of the dish. This can be seen in the diagrams with the increased air speed in the tube connecting the dish to the vortex chamber. When capped, air will circulate down then over the entire dish bottom (visible in full and side views.) This prevents pockets of dead air from forming, allowing the dish to be fully cleared.


Gen 1 Universal Carb Cap

When a carb cap is placed on a nail, it and the dish form a sealed chamber. Air enters this chamber from the carb cap's air intake and exits through the nail. As long as less air is allowed to enter this chamber than is able to exit as you draw, a low pressure zone is created. Reducing air pressure allows your material to vaporize at lower temperatures and avoid the destruction of sensitive volatile compounds responsible for much of the flavor of your vapor.

Most other titanium carb caps have a fixed air intake near the dish. Carb caps with a very small air intake are effective at building a low pressure zone, however they are difficult to fully clear without wasting vapor. Caps with larger air intakes are easier to clear, but are less effective at creating the low pressure zone in the first place, losing much of the benefit of having a carb cap at all. With our Universal Carb Cap we wanted the best of both worlds, so we designed it to be finger carbed. The air intake is farther from the dish, so that as the carb cap heats up from contact with the hot nail, it does not rapidly become too hot to safely operate by hand. By covering the air intake with your finger, only a small amount of air can enter the chamber and a low pressure zone is created. Once vapor has built up, you can release your finger to allow more air in and fully clear the chamber.

The following images show airflow with the carb cap on our V1 and V1.3 nails as examples, with the air intake completely uncovered. Air passes through the entire chamber, with no dead spots to trap your vapor and prevent it from being fully cleared.